OH WHAT A DIFFERENCE A DIFFERENCE MAKES:
GENDER IN THE VISUAL ARTS--page 7


FOOTNOTES

1Ribiero only sees gender roles being inculcated in females, whereas the young boys just get to play. I think gender roles for both sexes are suggested in the painting.

2 Judy Chicago says: "Manet is always an ambiguous artist, and consequently his version of Nana, like the more famous painting Olympia, has been subjected to a variety of different readings. Some commentators see both pictures as exploitive; others, like myself, disagree, and perceive irony directed at standard masculine attitudes, mingle with sympathy for the position of women" (108).

3 As Anne Chen notes, "at the conjunction of racial and gender discrimination stands the woman of color, for whom 'beauty' presents a vexing problem both as judgment and solution. That is, between a feminist critique of feminine beauty and a racial denial of nonwhite beauty, where does this leave the woman of color? Can she or can she not be beautiful? Is her beauty (or potential for beauty) good or evil? It is unclear whether assenting to the prospect of a 'beautiful woman of color' would be disruptive of racial discourse or complicit with gender stereotypes. The demands and judgments of racial and gender politics are not necessarily as compatible as they initially appear. The question of beauty for a woman of color is thus fraught with competing demands."





WORKS CITED


Arker, Emma. "Women Artists and the French Academy: Vigée-Lebrun in the 1780s." In Gender and Art. Edited by Gill Perry. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999. 108-127.

Borzello, Frances. Seeing Ourselves: Women's Self Portraits. New York: Abrams, 1998.

Cameron, Dan, ed. Dancing at the Louvre: Faith Ringgold's French Collection and Other Story Quilts. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.

Chen, Anne Anlin. "Wounded Beauty: An Exploratory Essay on Race, Feminism, and the Aesthetic Question." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 19 (Fall 2000): 191-217.

Chicago, Judy and Edward Lucie-Smith. Women and Art: Contested Territory. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications, 1999.

Kent, Dale. "Women in Renaissance Florence." In Virtue and Beauty: Leonardo's Ginevra de' Benci and Renaissance Portraits of Women. Edited by David Alan Brown. Washington, D. C.: National Gallery of Art, 2002. 24-47.

Lucie-Smith, Edward. Race, Sex, and Gender in Contemporary Art. New York: Abrams, 1994.

Martin, Elizabeth and Vivian Meyer. Female Gazes: Seventy-Five Women Artists. Toronto: Second Story Press, 1997.

Nochlin, Linda. Representing Women. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1999.

Pope-Hennessey, John. The Portrait in the Renaissance. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966.

Raven, Arlene. Betye Saar Workers + Warriors: The Return of Aunt Jemima. New York: Michael Rosenfeld Gallery, 1998.

Sims, Lowery Stokes. " Elizabeth Catlett: A Life in Art and Politics." In Elizabeth Catlett Sculpture: A Fifty-Year Retrospective. Edited by Lucinda H.Gedeon. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1998. 11-25.

Tinagli, Paola. Women in Renaissance Art: Gender, Representation, Identity. Manchester [England]: Manchester University Press, 1997.

Ribeiro, Aileen. "Catalog." In Goya: Images of Women. Edited by Janis A. Tomlinson. Washington, D. C.: National Gallery of Art, 2002.

Walters, Margaret. The Nude Male: A New Perspective. New York: Penguin, 1978.


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© 2002 Mary Ann Sullivan.

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